Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (07.09.1707.-16.04.1788.)
Buffon's original form was to drop a needle
of length L at random on grid of parallel lines of spacing D.
For L les than or equal D we obtain
P(needle intersects the grid) = 2 * L / PI
If we drop the needle N times and count R
intersections we obtain
P = R / N,
PI = 2 * L * N / R * D.